Translation refers to the process of transferring a written text from a source language to a target language while keeping in mind the target audience as well as the intended purpose of the translated text.


Interpretation describes the process of transferring oral discourse from a source language to a target language. Different kinds of interpreting services are available depending on the situation, such as liaison interpreting, telephone interpreting or conference interpreting.


Proofreading describes the process of checking a translation for grammatical, spelling and typing errors as well as comparing it to the source text to make sure the content is rendered adequately and the translation serves its intended purpose.


Editing refers to the process of checking a translation for grammatical, spelling and typing errors. Unlike proofreading, this checking process is monolingual, i.e. the translation is not compared to the source text.


Localization is the adaption of content to fit the requirements of a certain target language and culture. Besides the translation of texts, this process may also require the adjustment of other elements (e.g. using different pictures or adapting product documentation to the legislation of the target location).


Subtitling is the process of providing videos with a (usually shortened) written translation of the film dialogue that is presented on the screen simultaneously with the corresponding spoken part of the original.


Transcription is the process of converting spoken words from audio or video recordings into written text.


Transcreation is a particularly creative kind of linguistic transfer that is most commonly used for advertising texts. In contrast to translation, transcreation uses the source text merely for guidance while the content is completely rewritten in the target language, often with linguistic means that differ greatly from the ones chosen in the original.

Editing & proofreading of monolingual texts:

Proofreading of monolingual texts is the process of checking texts for grammatical, spelling and typing errors. Editing also involves checking the correctness of the content as well as the style and logical rigour of the text.


The purpose of a testing phase after the implementation of a translation for websites, surveys or any other kind of interactive material is to spot technical or linguistic bugs, as some problems only become evident when the translation is online. In this step, the linguist checks the formatting and proper functioning of buttons, pages and links by navigating through the material as a user would do.


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